Saturday, December 17, 2011

Feresa: The Growling Wolf-Dolphin

The dolphin Feresa attenuata has been bestowed with dreadfully stupid common names. Feresa has been recognized as distinct from Orca since Gray (1871), which makes "Pygmy Killer Whale" both inappropriate and archaic. The alternative "Slender Blackfish" is actively misleading as the superficially similar Pseudorca is more slender (Reeves et al. 2002) and well-lit color photographs in Rossi-Santos et al. (2006) show that the species is actually brown, contra every illustration. I'll be calling the dolphin "Feresa" from here on out (I'm also not too fond of  "attenuata") as my alternate suggestion in the title is a tad verbose.

Feresea... maybe. This species can be distinguished from Pseudorca by having a proportionally larger dorsal fin (2 base lengths away from the blowhole vs. 2.5) and by having a clearly demarcated cape; Peponocephala can be distinguished by having pointed flipper tips, a pointed head when viewed from above, and no white extending around the face (Baird 2010). I think this is the case in the above photo, but I'm not entirely certain. Photo by Gary L. Friedrichsen from WoRMS.
Feresa is one of the most poorly-known toothed whales (McSweeney et al. 2009) and single sightings or strandings are still viewed as deserving publication (Baird 2010). Prior to 1954, the species was known from only two skulls (Reeves et al. 2002), making it extremely poorly-known even compared to beaked whales. What makes this absolutely shocking is that Feresa is not a cryptic species. They are known from the tropics and subtropics worldwide, are easy to detect in visual surveys, do not take extended dives, and (contra Leatherwood et al. 1982) do not avoid vessels (McSweeney et al. 2009). While their surface behavior is normally subdued compared to other dolphins, they have been observed jumping high above the surface and even riding on bow waves (Reeves et al. 2002). It appears that while a deep-water habitat and confusion with Pseudorca and Peponocephala can explain the lack of observations to a degree, the main factor is probably the species being rare (McSweeney et al. 2009).

In 1965 - a little over a decade after the external appearance of the animal became known - Feresa was held in captivity. Pryor (1991) remarked that one individual behaved "more like a wolf than a normal dolphin" would "growl and snap like as canid" and "not hesitate to attack people and other cetaceans". Since when are cetaceans capable of growling? This behavior has led some to presume that Feresa preys on mammals in the wild (Leatherwood et al. 1982) and aggression towards other dolphins has been observed whilst individuals were trapped in tuna seines (Reeves et al. 2002). Considering that both situations occurred in cramped and undoubtedly stressful environments, I think it is completely unfounded to conclude that Feresa is a pugnacious marine mammal-killing macropredator with the available evidence. Stomach contents have included squid and fish (Rodríguez-López and Mignucci- Giannoni 1999; Zerbini & Santos 1997)

Feresa skeleton. From Wikipedia Commons.
The skeleton of Feresa does appear superficially Orca-like, however, it is not a particularly close relative, hence my strong dislike of the "Pygmy Killer Whale". There is some disagreement as to how closely they are related; Slater et al. (2010) places Orcinus (and Orcaella) as the most basal delphinids, however Vilstrup et al. (2011) consider both to be both members of the clade Globicephalinae, but with Orca as the most basal member and Feresa as a derived member and close relative of Peponocephala and Globicephala. This seems like a very interesting group, and perhaps I'll give it some more coverage.


References:

Baird, R. W. (2010). Pygmy Killer Whales (Feresa attenuata) or False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) Identification of a Group of Small Cetaceans Seen off Ecuador in 2003. Aquatic Mammals 36(3), 326-327. Available.

Gray, J. E. (1871). Supplement to the Catalogue of seals and whales in the British Museum. Available.

Leatherwood, S., Reeves, R. R., Perrin, W. F., & Evans, W. (1982). Whales, dolphins, and porpoises of the eastern north pacific and adjacent arctic waters (NOAA Technical Report NMFA Circular 444). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service. Partially Available.

McSweeney, D. J., Baird, R. W., Mahaffy, S. D., Webster, D. L., and Schorr, G. S. (2009). Site fidelity and association patterns of a rare species: Pygmy killer whales (Feresa attenuata) in the main Hawaiian Island. Marine Mammal Science 25(3), 557-572. Available.

Pryor, K. (1991). Mortal remains: Studying dead animals. In: Pryor, K. & Norris, K. S. (eds.) Dolphin Society: Discoveries and Puzzles. University of California Press: Berkeley. Available.

Reeves, R. R., Stewart, B. S., Clapham, P. J., & Powell, J. A. (2002). National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. Alfred A. Knopf: New York.

Rodríguez-López, M. A. & Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A. (1999). A stranded pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata) in Puerto Rico. Aquatic Mammals 25(2), 119-121. Available.

Rossi-Santos, M., Baracho, C., Neto, E. S., & Marcovaldi, E. (2006). First sightings of the pygmy killer whale, Feresa attenuata, for the Brazilian coast. JMBA2 - Biodiversity Records. Available.

Slater, G. J., Price, S. A., Santini, F., and Alfaro, M. E. (2010). Diversity versus disparity and the radiation of modern cetaceans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277(1697), 3097-3104. Available.

Vilstrup, J. T., Ho, S. Y. W., Foote, A. D., Morin, P. A., Kreb, D., Krützen, M., Parra, G. J., Robertson, K. M., de Stephanis, R., Verborgh, P., Willerslev, E., Orlando, L., & Gilbert, M. T. P. (2011). Mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses of the Delphinidae with an emphasis on the Globicephalinae. BMC Evolutionary Biology 11(65). Available.

Zerbini, A. N. & Santos, M. C. O. (1997). First record of the pygmy killer whale Feresa attenuata (Gray, 1874) for the Brazilian coast. Aquatic Mammals 23(2), 105-109. Available.

76 comments:

Rich said...

From my reading, such animals as the Pygmy Hippo and the Pygmy Chimpanzee are well known nowadays to have been inappropriately named (belonging to a distinct species). I think it's a common problem. I hadn't realized the "Pygmy Killer Whale" was another in that list. Are there others? I can think of the reverse case, as in "Giants"

Cameron McCormick said...

In Cetacea alone there's also the Pygmy Right Whale, Pygmy Sperm Whale, Pygmy (= Bandolero) Beaked Whale, Pygmy Bryde's (= Omura's) Whale, Pygmy Blue Whale, and the Pygmy Fin Whale.

Outside of Cetacea, there seem to be dozens more.

I don't have much of a problem with subspecies being referred to as "Pygmy" [whatever], but animals being referred to as pygmies of species they're not even close relatives of is just stupid. I think some old synonyms need to be resurrected.

Cameron McCormick said...

The use of "giant" does seem to be a bit more common and recognizable (Panda, Anteater, Tortoise), but I can't think of any instances of it being used to distinguish an unusually sized population as "pygmy" sometimes has.

I've sometimes seem Physeter called the "Giant Sperm Whale" which sounds cool, but (I begrudgingly admit) is unnecessary.

December 17, 2011 11:55:00 PM EST

Robert Boessenecker said...

Keep up the good work on cetacean/marine mammal posts - it's good to see other folks interested in this subject.

Unknown said...

I love the blog. Great post. It is very true, people Mobile wallet must learn how to learn before they can learn. lol i know it sounds funny but its very true.
Thanks

GED Diploma Online said...

This is additionally a decent post which I truly appreciated perusing. It is not consistently that I have the likelihood to see something like this.

Visit: GED Diploma Online

Live Links Of High PR Commenting Site said...

Truly nice post I like the information that you shown is hard to faith and many superbly I liked the way you afford things here.

Just Click : Live Links Of High PR Commenting Site

Gambar Model Jilbab Dian Pelangi 2015 said...

Hi everyone, it’s my first go to see at this website, and article is genuinely fruitful in favor of me, keep up posting these types of articles or reviews.

High School Diploma Online said...

Great work you have post here thanks a lot for sharing,

Anonymous said...

nice post. and so lucky find this web sepintasas mengenai Asam Urat. Apa itu Asam urat? Asam urat adalah zat sisa hasil dari metabolisme purin dari sisa makanan yang telah kita konsumsi. Asam urat tersebut akan dikeluarkan melalui kotoran atau urine. Tetapi, jika asam masuk secara berlebihan maka ginjal tidak bisa mengeluarkan asam urat tersebut dan akan menumpuk di dalam persendian, biasanya penyebab asam urat menumpuk karena buang air yang tidak lancar. Akibatnya persendian menjadi bengkak dan menyebabkan sulit untuk berjalan.

erwin herbal said...

I was confused to comment, if I exaggerated when I said it was a remarkable article. I was amazed by the contents and it would like to continue reading even if the eyes are tired. really good article anyway. may I share articles like this obat untuk penyakit tumor otak cara menghilangkan jerawat batu May I share articles, it may be useful to other people. cara menurunkan kolesterol tinggi cara mengobati impotensi The article discusses health treatment. The next article also discusses the same thing akibat usus kotor dan cara membersihkannya tips cara diet sehat mudah pengobatan alternatif penyakit stroke these articles I created to share information that might be useful for everyone cara menyembuhkan penyakit jantung cara membuat tubuh langsing I'd love sharing goodness as with this article, hopefully it can benefit others.
toko green world globalerwin herbal

toko green world global said...

This article is very useful for those who are reading it, it's a shame if people skip reading. I also have articles that may be beneficial, as this article: obat benjolan di ketiak cara mengobati gagal ginjalerwin herbal I believe it would be useful. and which is also very useful to increase knowledge cara menyembuhkan penyakit jantung obat benjolan dibelakang telinga cara mengobati penyakit amandel these articles I created to share information that might be useful for everyone pengobatan alternatif usus besar obat campak anak-anak suplemen kecantikan herbal glucoberry glucocoa I'd love sharing goodness as with this article, hopefully it can benefit others.
toko green world global

world said...


really interesting reading, when i am read very pleased and want to continue to read it. Good luck with this article. I also have articles that may be beneficial, as this article: obat inpeksi saluran kemih obat asam urat obat ejakulasi dini The article discusses health treatment. The next article also discusses the same thing borok di kulit kepala benjolan lemak di punggung I believe it would be useful. and which is also very useful to increase knowledge obat penyakit pankreas obat penyakit pembengkakan persendian The article is also great. or this one obat herbal rematik world herbal I'd love sharing goodness as with this article, hopefully it can benefit others.

Unknown said...

thanks for sharing insights, I like being able to add new knowledge at the same time new insights, thanks for giving new insight, may be useful to others his..
OBAT BATUK
OBAT SINUSITIS
OBAT KOLESTEROL
OBAT ASMA
OBAT AMBEIEN

money transfer comparison said...

I feel really happy to have seen your webpage and look forward to so many more entertaining times reading here. Thanks once more for all the details.money transfer comparison

flat icons said...

This is really good share about gifts,flat icons

contract management said...

I'm delighted to mature so additional functional and informative collection on your web site.contract management

Kitchen hood filters said...

you are so creative! I love all of these ideas! I am looking for employee recognition ideas and these most of these would be a big hit! Thanks for sharing!Kitchen hood filters

Prescription Discount Card said...

Everything is very open with a very clear clarification of the challenges. It was definitely informative. Your website is very useful.Prescription Discount Card

Job posting software said...

I have recently started a blog, the info on this site Provide you’ve Helped Greatly me. Thanks for all of your time & work.Job posting software

treadmill desk said...

I so love this story. It's exactly the kind of stuff I like reading along with a great recipe. The lasagna looks soooo good!treadmill desk

Buy White Wine said...

Simply wish to say your article is as astounding. The clearness on your submit is just excellent and i can suppose you are an expert on this subject.Buy White Wine

mortgage closing costs said...

This can be well-articulated, sharpened, and also aim. Precisely what important lessons have you found out that an individual applied to this post. Looking forward to go through your experience. Where have you came your own bottom line?mortgage closing costs

Anonymous said...

Thanks for share, It's useful.
Taxi tải giá rẻ
dịch vụ vận chuyển hàng hoá bắc nam
Taxi tải chở hàng giá rẻ

Anonymous said...

thank for good post and sharing
goldenslot
gclub casino
สูตรบาคาร่า

Unknown said...

Hello good people. have a nice day..

Alternatif Pengobatan
Obat Maag Kronis
Cara Menyembuhkan Mata Minus
Obat Mata Glaukoma
Obat Eye Care Softgel
Ace Maxs Asli
Green World Slimming Capsule
Cara Mengobati Ejakulasi Dini
Obat Ambeien Herbal

Qnc Jelly Gamat said...

Nice information..

Obat Bronkitis Herbal
Cara Mengobati Bronkitis Secara Alami
Walatra Sehat Mata Softgel

vinyl siding columbus ohio said...

Your blog has always been a good source for me to get quality tips on blogging. Thanks once again.

Kelemahan Teori Evolusi Menurut Lamarck said...

Thanks for the informative blog. The place else may possibly just I get that kind of info written in such a excellent approach? I’ve a venture that I’m just now operating on, and I’ve been on the glance out for such info.

Unknown said...

These things are so interesting that I have a lot of interest and is very interesting.


สูตรบาคาร่า

Riko JR said...

thank you information, very helpful, do not forget to visit also kunju our page to berai information about health
Cara Mengobati Jampes
12 cara menghilangkan bibir menghitam
cara menyembuhkan vertigo secara total

Riko JR said...

Thank you for visiting, thank you for giving us the information we need, do not forget to visit our page or website to share information about health thanks.
obat gudik Scabies
obat balas bogo
cara mengatasi milia
cara menghilangkan balas bogo

Riko JR said...

Thank you for visiting, thank you for giving us the information we need, do not forget to visit our page or website to share information about health thanks.
obat pityriasis alba paling ampuh
cara mengobati sakit pinggang
obat gusi bengkak
obat kelenjar air liur

Riko JR said...

Thank you for visiting, thank you for giving us the information we need, do not forget to visit our page or website to share information about health thanks.
Agen jelly gamat QnC cibeureum tasikmalaya
obat gondongan alami
cara mengobati sakit pnggang
cara mengatasi sakit perut sebelah kiri / kanan

Unknown said...

This is a great inspiring article. I am pretty much pleased with your good work.You put really very helpful information. PPC Services in Delhi

Unknown said...

I really enjoyed reading your blogs...Keep post!
Visit us: Social Media Marketing Packages India

Unknown said...

You’ve got some interesting points in this article. I would have never considered any of these if I didn’t come across this. Thanks!!!
Visit us: PPC Packages in Delhi

JESSICA JANE said...

If you have a history of illness that is difficult to recover, maybe our next article will help you to recover

Obat Penghilang Benjolan di Leher
Cara Melacarkan Haid
Cara Mengatasi Pengapuran Tulang
Obat Keputihan alami
Walatra Propolis Brazil

Riko JR said...

Thank you for visiting, thank you for giving us the information we need, do not forget to visit our page or website to share information about health thanks.
Obat Neuropati di apotek
Obat Sesak Nafas Alami
obat batu ginjal alami
obat syringoma

xccc said...

Have you been inclined to get popularity shortly? Online community site Twitter can be the proper way for you. buy non drop twitter followers

Unknown said...

Several folks spend their entire day on compiling sort as well as enhancing their facebook follower adhering to however they can't increase the list of individuals without extra aid. buy targeted likes

4477satu said...

http://sehatselalu002.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/Pengobatan-Alternatif-Ambeien-Keluar-Darah-b1-p1565.htm Jutaan orang menderita wasir dan ada laporan bahwa ini adalah salah satu penyakit sistem pencernaan yang paling umum terjadi. Sayangnya, orang yang menderita kondisi ini biasanya tidak membicarakan hal itu dan kondisi ini dianggap sebagai salah satu masalah kesehatan yang paling sering diabaikan, mungkin karena mereka malu untuk berbicara tentang hal itu atau bahkan malu mencari pengobatan untuk itu. Cara terbaik untuk menangani wasir adalah dengan mencari perawatan medis. Wasir tidak mengancam nyawa tapi tentu saja anda juga harus memastikan bahwa itu bukan merupakan gejala dari kondisi yang lebih serius. Karena itu maka cara terbaik adalah mencari bantuan profesional untuk diagnosa dan segera melakukan pengobatan. Ambeien Keluar Darah Apakah Berbahaya?

Eksim Basah Apa Obatnya? Gunakan penyedot debu untuk membersihkan area-area yang suit untuk dibersihkan oleh sapu. Jangan lupa juga untuk membersihkan bagian-bagian rumah lainnya yang mungkin menjadi sarang bakteri, jamur dan virus, seperti lemari, kaca dan tempat tidur. Pengobatan Gatal gatal Akibat Eksim

Obat Ambeien Tradisional Terdaftar Di BPOM Hemmorroid atau ambeien atau wasir merupakan penyakit yang muncul akibat terjadinya gumpalan – gumpalan pembuluh darah pada daerah dubur anda. Keadaanya seperti pada kaki anda yang terdapat pembengkakan varises. Hal ini terjadi karena rectum yang berfungsi sebagai penyimpanan abdestimizi sebesar dua (2) otot pcs atau spinchter secara otomatis terbuka di saat otot internal dalam kondisi parallel atau dengan kata lain harmoni kinerja antara otot luar dan dalam mengalami kerusakan. Dan keadaan ini dapat terjadi baik di internal (dalam) maupun eksternal (luar). Obat Ambeien Herbal Ambejoss Terbaik dan Terdaftar Di BPOM

http://www.denature.51shilongwang.com/mengapa-kemaluan-pria-keluar-nanah/ Mengapa obat ini disebut obat gonore ampuh ? karena kita ketahui sendiri kedua khasiat ini merupakan obat yang seratus persen menggunakan bahan dari alam sehingga kita tidak perlu khawatir lagi dengan dampak ataupun efek samping yang ditimbulkan. Memang sekarang ini pada kenyataanya obat-obatan kimia dan operasi memiliki cara kerja yang cepat dan instant. Akan tetapi, dibalik itu semua terdapat dampak yang cukup bahaya nantinya. Untuk obat gonore ampuh kahasiat daun kumis kucing dan binahong ini juga cukup murah dan mudah didapatkan sehingga semua kalangan dapat menggunakanya. Nah, dibawah ini akan dijelaskan kandungan dan kehebatan khasiat dari daun kumis kucing dan binahong. Sebab Kemaluan Mengeluarkan Nanah

Unknown said...

I can only express a word of thanks. Because with the content on this blog I can add knowledge I, thank has been sharing this information. Do not forget to visit our website to share information and knowledge about health.
Obat Jantung Berdebar Walatra Sehat raga
Cara Mengatasi Insomnia

Riko JR said...

I can only express a word of thanks. Because with the content on this blog I can add knowledge I, thank has been sharing this information. Do not forget to visit our website to share information and knowledge about health.
cara menurunkan leukosit leukositopenia tinggi obat penumbuh Sel kulit baru
Cara mengobati kanker otak
Hopefully, sustenance will be easy and simplified in all matters :-)
DISTRIBUTOR QNC JELLY GAMAT
Cara menumbuhkan sel kulit baru
obat kantung mata hitam

Riko JR said...

I was confused to comment, if I exaggerated when I said it was a remarkable article. I was amazed by the contents and it would like to continue reading even if the eyes are tired. really good article anyway. may I share articles like this
cara mengobati rasa sakit pada tumit kaki |
cara mengobati penyakit gudik |
obat penghilang gatal akibat darah manis |
obat sakit kepala berbulan - bulan

Lutfi Kurniawan said...

만약에 내가 간다면 내가 다가간다면 넌 어떻게 생각할까 용길 낼 수 없고 Obat Bisul Ampuh Cara Menghilangkan Cairan Di Paru Obat Ambeien Cara mengatasi Infeksi Saluran Kemih

Riko JR said...


Hopefully with the content on this blog, I can add to my insight, thank you |
Cara Mengatasi Fungsi Ginjal |
Cara Mengatasi Bisul Di Anus |
Obat cacar api paling ampuh |
obat kulit kepala bernanah

Zihan Amelia said...

The poor do not grieve and do not regret themselves, the rich do not be proud. The degree of humans on the side of God is not because of the wealth of human beings on the side of God just because of their fear

Cara Mengatasi Beser
Obat Vitiligo
Cara Mengatasi Nyeri Pundak
Cara Mengobati Parotitis
Cara Mengatasi Sakit Pinggang

Zihan Amelia said...

I have not been lucky, failed and always failed again. I will not give up

Obat Luka Diabetes Ampuh
Obat Batuk Rejan
Obat Lemak Darah Tinggi Alami
Obat Nyeri Punggung Tradisional
Mengatasi Gatal Di Selangkangan
Obat Leukemia Alami

Riko JR said...

I can only express a word of thanks. Because with the content on this blog I can add knowledge I, thank has been sharing this information. Do not forget to visit our website to share information and knowledge about health. |
obat sakit betis dan paha |
obat luka cakar di wajah |
Cara Mengobati Keringat dingin |
Obat Keringat Dingin Herbal |
Obat ITP Di Apotik Untuk Anak |
Obat Herbal Penyakit Muntaber

Riko JR said...

Good information. i like this srticle. This is the best blog.. Good luck..!!
obat penyakit dompo
obat kista ganglion
obat asam lambung
obat penyakit hisprung
Cara Mengobati busung air
obat nyeri sendi

Riko JR said...


Thank you for sharing a good and interesting article ...
I hope the new posts will increase and can be a very good reference.
Hopefully more success thank you very much..
Cara Mengobati Kelenjar Ludah Bengkak
Cara Mengobati Borok di Kepala
Obat Kista Ukuran 8 Cm Dan 7 Cm
Cara Menumbuhkan Jaringan Daging
Obat penyakit dompo

Riko JR said...

Thank you for sharing a good and interesting article ...
I hope the new posts will increase and can be a very good reference.
Hopefully more success thank you very much..

cara mengatasi kepala kliyengan
Cara Pemesanan Jelly Gamat QnC
obat mata bintitan yang ampuh

Riko JR said...

Thank you for sharing a good and interesting article ...
I hope the new posts will increase and can be a very good reference.
Hopefully more success thank you very much..

cara menyembuhkan kepala kliyengan
cara mengobati luka caesar
obat luka memar dan bengkak
cara menghilangkan benjolan dipipi

Riko JR said...

I can only express a word of thanks. Because with the content on this blog I can add knowledge I, thank has been sharing this information. Do not forget to visit our website to share information and knowledge about health.
cara menaikan trombosit yang turun
cara mengobati timbilen
cara Mengobati Parkison
cara menyembuhkan kepala kliyengan

Riko JR said...

I can only express a word of thanks. Because with the content on this blog I can add knowledge I, thank has been sharing this information. Do not forget to visit our website to share information and knowledge about health.
obat penyakit dompo
obat kebas dan kesemutan
obat ispa di apotik
cara mengobati sekelan

QnC Jelly Gamat said...

I can only express a word of thanks. Because with the content on this blog I can add knowledge I, thank has been sharing this information. Do not forget to visit our website to share information and knowledge about health.
cara mengobati sangkadi
obat linu di paha
cara mengobati penyakit gudik

Golden Slot Game said...

Thanks for your sharing, it helps me a lot and I think I'll watch your post more.
…………………….
slotxo
สล็อตออนไลน์
ทางเข้า slotxo

Gclub Asia99 said...

Thanks for your sharing, it helps me a lot and I think I'll watch your post more.
………………………...
goldenslot
golden slot

Sayna said...

You’ve got some interesting points in this article.طراحی لوگو

Gclub Asia99 said...

Thanks for your sharing, it helps me a lot and I think I'll watch your post more.
………………………...
goldenslot
golden slot

Human Hair Wigs said...

lace front wigs
WigNice is an online store speiclaized in wigs business, featuring human hair wigs and hair extensions for women. WigNice promises the hair is 100% human hair and high-qaulity products, low factory price, best customer services. Come to WigNice to get your nice wigs!

Abhishek said...

Hi there,

Nice Article I really enjoyed this post Thanks For Sharing, check out this
Ascent ASSOCIATES is one of Sri Lanka’s leading ‘total solutions’ providers, offering a simple, cost-effective route to ISO Certification in Colombo, Kandy, Galle, Dambulla, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte & all over Sri Lanka.

Ascent Associates

Abhishek said...

Enjoyed reading the article above, really explains everything in detail, the article is very interesting and effective. Thank you and good luck for the upcoming articles. Check this out

ISO 22000 Certification in Mumbai

Abhishek said...

Hey there,
Enjoyed reading the article above, really explains everything in detail, the article is very interesting and effective, Thanks for Sharing, check this out

ISO 9001 Certification in Sri Lanka

Twinkle said...

Nice post. It is really interesting. Thanks for sharing the post!
Web Design Company in Tuticorin | Domain Name Registration In India
Web Design Company In India | Digital Marketing Company in India
PPC Services in India | SEO Company India
Bulk SMS Service in India | Social Media Marketing Company in India

Alexmohom said...

We have pretty buds here, we deliver to all locations discreetly

Buy marijuana online
Buy Afghani kush online
Order AK 47 online
Buy Banana OG Kush
online

Buy Black Diamond
online

Buy marijuana online
Buy afghan-kush online
Buy blackberry-kush-oil online

Abhishek said...

Enjoyed reading the article above, really explains everything in detail, the article is very interesting and effective. Thank you and good luck for the upcoming articles. Check this out

ISO 9001 Certification

UFA888 said...

Very Helpful Article. สมัคร ufabet It might help you. สมัคร ufabet Thanks For Sharing
สมัคร ufabet Thank you very much.

UFA888 said...

This Is Really Useful And Nice Information. สมัคร ufabet
This are such great articles. สมัคร ufabet This articles can help you to make some new ideas.
https://soccersurfer98.hatenablog.com/entry/2020/09/02/132139?_ga=2.193217001.552343305.1598844608-1286484823.1596077192 I appreciate for reading my blogs.

UFA888 said...


This are new articles style for you. https://sbo98bet.wixsite.com/sbo98bet/post/%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%A1-%E0%B8%84%E0%B8%A3-ufabet amazin555 http://foxz98bet.over-blog.com/ufabet-6 It might help you to write or think some new idea.
https://dafa98bet.weebly.com/36263617363335883619362636173634359436363585/-ufabet8326348 Thanks for sharing such a wonderful post.
https://w88-com.jimdofree.com/2020/09/01/%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%A1-%E0%B8%84%E0%B8%A3-ufabet/ I am very glad for reading my articles.

Abhishek said...

Really very happy to say, your post is very interesting to read. I never stop myself to say something about it. You’re doing a great job. Keep it up

BIFMA Certification

Abhishek said...

Found your post interesting to read. I can’t wait to see your post soon. Good Luck for the upcoming update. This article is really very interesting and effective.

CE Marking

Falcon Solution LTD said...

Falcon Solution ltd provide best service with best price for Epoxy resin floor coating, Epoxy floor paint in Bangladesh. for more details here : Epoxy Flooring in Bangladesh

Escorts in Lahore [ 03043444111 ] Call girls in Lahore said...

We Are provide the best Escorts service in Lahore
| 03043444111 Salman |

Most people are not familiar with how escorts service Lahore agencies work. Our exotic ladies provide their time to clients for gratuity. They are professional women who are sensitive to a person’s needs, have positive attitudes to bring out the best in everyone, and are just more fun to be around than a psychiatrist. All of our escorts undergo background checks and regular health screenings. These escorts are not prostitutes. Soliciting sex is illegal in Lahore escorts. Please do not call or text asking for sexual favors. Lahore Escorts Service
| 03043444111 Salman |

Escorts in Lahore [ 03043444111 ] Call girls in Lahore said...

| 03043444111 Salman |

We Are provide best Escorts service in Lahore
Call Girls in Lahore
Lahore Model Girls stay lovely and matchless in their looks, figures, and physiques.Escorts in Lahore At Pakistani VIP Girls, you will discover several kinds of escort. Whenever you are with our escorts, you will find out that she’s quite friendly and caring. Our platform is a favorite option for many local and global clients.
| 03043444111 Salman |