Friday, December 11, 2009

Invasion of the Armored Suckermouths!



Due to the probability of a cease-and-desist letter from England, I'll weave the hinted-at tale above into the tapestry of woe that the armored suckermouth catfishes have caused.

My highly derivative alternate title refers to a phenomenon that occurred in Oct. 1992* in the lower Loiza and Gurabo Rivers of Puerto Rico: at least twenty Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis, a locally endangered species at the time) were found strangled to death with large armored suckermouth catfish (over 40 cm, 16" in length) lodged in their throats (Bunkley-Williams et al. 1994). It is worth pointing out that Brown Pelicans typically take prey under 25 cm in length (ref.), do not have bills over 16"/40 cm in length (according to this), and weigh 2-5 kg compared to the ~1 kg that the catfish weighed**. The possibility that Brown Pelicans can successfully swallow prey of that size cannot be precluded, so the extensive armor and unusual morphology*** of the catfish may have been the fatal factors. As to why the phenomenon was so widespread, the catfish became established in Puerto Rico only a few years before and their ease of capture may have prompted curiosity towards a new potential food source. No more reports have been published, so it is possible that the local Brown Pelican population has learned to avoid the catfish, which are probably now permanently established. And sorry to those seeking out morbid photos of the failed loricariid consumption, photographs do not seem to have been published, or even taken as far as I know.
* The table actually says "Ott 1992", I'm fairly certain it's a typo and not some hyper-obscure Latin abbreviation.
** The first recorded loricariid from Puerto Rico was a 1.8 kg, 51.2 cm "Hypostomus plecostomus" - this identification is dubious and the (lost) specimen was presumably the same species as the ones the pelicans swallowed (Bunkley-Williams et al. 1994). Anyways, extrapolating from that record gives 0.86 kg for a 40 cm specimen - I stated ~1 kg due to uncertainty and the implication that 40 cm was a minimum. 
*** Hoover et al. (2004) suggest that the dorsal and pectoral defensive spines were the cause of the mortalities.


Bunkley-Williams et al. (1994) identified the invasive loricariid catfish species as Liposarcus multiradiatus, which is now (again, actually) known as Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus. Puerto Rico has no native loricariids* and while a report occurred as early as 1983 (a likely accidental), P. multiradiatus became established in eight rivers and two reservoirs in the early 1990's, with numbers significant enough to support a local fishery in one area (Bunkley-Williams et al. 1994). While there are markets for the fish in the food and pet industries (at least one fish farm existed on the island for the latter purpose), Bunkley-Williams et al. (1994) suggested that the unexpectedly large size reached by the species led to amateur aquarists discarding them. The catfish appear to be incredibly tolerant of handling stress and can even reportedly survive out of the water for hours** (Bunkley-Williams et al. 1994).


* The type locality of Lasiancistrus guacharote (formerly Hypostomus) was Puerto Rico, but it turns out that this is in error, the species is actually from Venezuela and Columbia (Armbruster 2005). 
** Over 30 hours, in fact (Armbruster 1998 citing Val and De Almeida-Val 1995). They accomplish this by breathing air into an enlarged and highly vascularized stomach, which primarily functions to survive low-oxygen conditions in water (Armbruster 1998). Hoover et al. (2004) documented Pterygoplichthys specimens which apparently entered a period of estivation in burrows, from which they recovered as soon as they returned to water. The implication is that they can survive considerably longer than 30 hours out of the water. Oh, and they can also move on land during extreme environmental conditions.


If the trouble caused by Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus seems familiar, that's because a couple posts ago I discussed how P. disjunctivus (and/or hybrid descendants) specimens in Florida grazed on manatees to a likely deleterious effect. I didn't properly introduce the loricariid catfishes then, and I'm not sure how I passed on such a succulent tangent. So here's a scenic detour through the world of these bizarre armored suckermouth catfishes.


P. multiradiatus from the Wikipedia Commons.

Ideally, the common name "armored suckermouth catfishes" should be used for Loricariidae since they are not the only clade with extensive armor (Callichthyidae) nor are they the only ones with a sucker mouth (Astroblepidae). Loricariidae and Astroblepidae are sister clades (indicating the suckermouth is a shared derived character) and Callichthyidae is a more distant relative (indicating the extensive armor is convergent, unless lost numerous times) in the greater clade Loricarioidea, which includes everything from parasites to a monotypic oddity. Loricariidae itself has a staggering array of morphological variability: Panaque nigrolineatus (Ancistrinae) has an incredibly large head, Tim Burton-esque stripes, and the ability to digest wood with the aid of bacteria; some species (e.g. Farlowella amazonum - Loricariinae) have a body shape reminiscent of pipefish (likely for similar camouflage needs); the Sturisoma species and relatives (Loricariinae as well) look similar except with very exaggerated fins; dwarf suckermouths (Otocinclus et al. - Hypoptopomatinae) look more like generic tetra-like fishes than highly derived catfishes at first glance; one Ancistrus species is a blind cave-dweller, others have bizarre facial tentacles (Ancistrinae); Chaetostoma sovichthys (Ancistrinae) and relatives hardly look like fish at all in dorsal view - more like a revisitation of Cephalaspis or even the ichthyological answer to Triops. The point is, with 700+ species, Loricariidae is a very successful clade - considering they're mostly freshwater* and restricted to one continent. Adriaens et al. (2009) discussed the highly derived jaw morphology** which apparently allowed the loricariids to radiate into the algae-scraped niche; exactly how the numerous species differ niche-wise has not had much discussion.The species Adriaens et al. (2009) used as a model for their study of loricariid jaw mechanics? - Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus.

* Although sources like Fishbase state that they are strictly freshwater, Hoover et al. (2004) report that they occur in brackish water. 
** Catfish jaw morphology is normally conservative, but loricariid jaws have a uniquely mobile upper jaw (as in, it typically doesn't move at all in other catfishes) and the bones of the lower jaw are decoupled to allow for asymmetric scraping movement. 


Back to the invasive loricariids. As it appears that the most widespread and damaging taxa are a few related Pterygoplichthys species (e.g. within the genus), I'll be focusing on those sailfin catfishes - distinguishable by their large dorsal fins consisting of more than 10 rays. In addition to Puerto Rico and Florida, Hawaii has a particularly noteworthy population of Pterygoplichthys and several other genera of loricariids (Bunkley-Williams et al. 1994 - citing various). In the Philippines, P. disjunctivus and P. pardalis were present in the Laguna Lake region since the 1950's and in the early 2000's were found in the Agusan marsh, one of the largest in Asia (Hubilla et al. 2007). Members of Pterygoplichthys are also established in Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Mexico (Page and Robins 2006, Armando et al. 2007). While Pterygoplichthys spp. are reported from a few states in the mainland USA, there is a chance that like could go from localized to very widespread and wreak havoc (Hoover et al. 2004). So what makes these loricariids particularly damaging invasive species?

The Pterygoplichthys species are capable of far more severe impacts than choking pelicans and cleaning manatees. In fact, Hoover (2004) states that the variety and severity of the ecological impacts from the catfish are unprecedented. I can't emphasize that enough. Loricariids burrow into the banks of streams and lakes in order to spawn and take refuge from droughts and cold temperatures; this behavior can erode away 4 meters of bank annually and cause increased silt loads and turbidity (Hoover et al. 2004, Hubilla et al. 2007). The increased turbidity slows down photosynthesis and likely has negative effects on the food web and energy flow (Hubilla et al. 2007). The catfishes also plow into the substrate and uproot plants, which likely reduces the abundance of native plants and may even aid in the spread of invasive plants (Hoover 2004). Invasive Pterygoplichthys, being large and bewilderingly resilient species, likely outcompete the native algae consumers, aggressively drive them away, and consume the eggs of those species and others (Hoover 2004). The presence of a ravenous algae grazer may also reduce cover for aquatic insects and disrupt the food chain by prematurely diverting nutrients into feces Hoover 2004). Having owned Hypostomus plecostomus specimens in my life, I can't help but wonder if the prodigious amount of feces that loricariids produce has some sort of impact as well.

So what can be done to prevent the potential ravaging of aquatic freshwater ecosystems by invasive loricariids? Bunkley-Williams (1994) discussed the possibility of large predatory fish controlling Pterygoplichthys numbers (Peacock bass, Cichla ocellaris, and Largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides), however they concluded that there was no known effective predator, disease, or parasite. The Philippines populations also do not appear to have any significant predation, even from native fishermen gillnets as they are damaged from the large fish (Hubilla et al. 2007). Hoover et al. (2004) and Hubilla (2007) suggest that fisheries, possibly with government incentive, could be a way of controlling populations (presumably with better equipment) as the fish are valued for their flesh and eggs. Hoover et al. (2004) also suggested protecting banks from burrowing and isolating the "infected" areas as method for preventing the problem from becoming very widespread. Hoover et al. (2004) and Bunkley-Williams et al. (1994) suggest public education to the prevent further release of loricariids and the latter publication proposed a program to return unwanted fish from amateur aquariums. Those two papers and Hubilla (2007) all suggest that environmental laws should be strengthened in order to prevent multiple Pterygoplichthys species or even multiple loricariid genera from being established. Bunkley-Williams (1994) doubt that the invasive species can ever be eradicated, but the chances of controlling the spread of the catfishes are still good if people recognize the problem before it gets completely out of control.

I'll admit that when I was a kid I released a large loricariid into a quarry before I moved. Even though it had no chances of becoming widespread, it was still a very dumb decision. So please, if you own these catfishes, whatever you do, don't release them into the wild!


References:

Adriaens, Dominique, et al. (2009). Extensive Jaw Mobility in Suckermouth Armored Catfishes (Loricariidae): A Morphological and Kinematic Analysis of Substrate Scraping Mode of Feeding. Journal of Experimental Biology 212, 116-125. Available.

Armando, T. et al. (2007). Amazon Sailfin Catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Castelnau, 1855) (Loricariidae), another exotic species established in Southeastern Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist 52(1), 141-144.

Armbruster, Jonathan W. (2005). The loricariid catfish genus Lasiancistrus (Siluriformes) with descriptions of two new species. Neotropical Ichthyology 3(4), 549-569. Available.

Armbruster, Jonathan W. (1998). Modifications of the Digestive Tract for Holding Air in Loricariid and Scoloplacid Catfishes. Copeia 1998(3), 663-675. Available.

Bunkley-Williams, Lucy, et al. (1994). The South American Sailfin Armored Catfish, Liposarcus multiradiatus (Hancock), a New Exotic Established in Puerto Rican Fresh Waters. Caribbean Journal of Science 30(1-2), 90-94. Available.

Hoover, Jan Jeffrey, et al. (2004). Suckermouth Catfishes: Threats to Aquatic Ecosystems of the United States? ANSRP Bulletin 04(1). Available.

Hubilla, Marianne, et al. (2007). Janitor Fishes Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus in the Agusan Marsh: a Thread to Freshwater Biodiversity. Journal of Environmental Science and Management 10(1), 10-21. Available.

Page, Lawrence W. and Robins, Robert H. (2006). Identification of Sailfin Catfishes (Teleostei: Loricariidae) in Southeastern Asia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54(2), 455-457. Available.

292 comments:

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Antagonist Jason said...

When I saw this on facebook I thought it was going to be about Callicthyids :-(

STILL COOL THOUGH. Things like this have really gotten me thinking a lot about how deleterious the pet fish industry has been. It's just not worth it.

Cameron McCormick said...

Sorry Jason!

The pet industry can get fairly alarming, especially when species that have yet to be properly described are being traded. It certainly seems more than capable of causing havoc both home and abroad, and is causing me to get all cynical dammit.

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Heni Herbal said...

Survivors move back admin? Thank you for presenting the information very interesting
Obat Alami Infeksi Saluran Kemih Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Penyakit Ginjal Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Ginjal Bengkak Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Penyakit Jantung Paling ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Migren Secara Alami

Heni Herbal said...

Must remain safe in doing the activity? The information is very nice thank you
Obat Alami Jantung Bengkak Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Jantung Bocor paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Gagal Jantung Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Stroke Ringan Paling ampuh
Cara Alami Mengobati Stroke Berat Paling Ampuh

Heni Herbal said...

Survived so bright this morning? the information is very nice thank you admin, we will wait for the information that eat it.
Obat Alami Keputihan Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Penyakit TBC Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Penyakit Komplikasi Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Infeksi Paru-Paru paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Keputihan Secara Tradisional

Heni Herbal said...

The information was so very nice and very rewarding thank you been distributed
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Obat Alami Penyakit Diabetes Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Stroke Trombotik Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Penyakit Bronkitis Paling Ampuh
Cara Mengobati Infeksi Saluran Kemih Secara Alami

Heni Herbal said...

We will wait for further information which is very useful admin
Obat Alami Penyakit Keloid Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Sesak Nafas Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Darah Rendah Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Penyakit TBC Paru Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Infeksi Usus Besar Secara Tradisional

Heni Herbal said...

Thank you for this very interesting information admin, will we wait for the others.
Obat Alami Penyakit Paru-Paru Basah Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Penyempitan Jantung Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Kanker Nasofaring Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Penyakit Gondok Paling Ampuh
Cara Alami Mengatasi Ejakulasi Dini

Heni Herbal said...

Given this information very helpful at all, thank you.
Obat Alami Sakit Kepala Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Menurunkan kadar Gula Darah Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Urat Syaraf Kejepit Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif Batuk Berdarah Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif Untuk Insomnia

Heni Herbal said...

Zeal in doing the activity makes the fruit very satisfactory results.
Obat Alami Penyakit Hipotensi Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Nyeri Dada Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Penyakit Vertigo Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Pembuluh Darah Pecah Secara Tradisional
Cara Alami Pengobatan Penyakit Hipertensi

Heni Herbal said...

The information is very nice thank you admin
Obat Alami Demam Tifoid Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Kista Testis Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Penyakit Asbestosis Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Gastritis Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif Stroke Ringan Secara Tradisional

Heni Herbal said...

Good afternoon and welcome rest for a while? The information is very helpful for that we will wait for more information.
Pengobatan Alternatif Infeksi Usus Besar Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Radang Usus Besar Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Alzheimer Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Disentri Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Penyakit Limfoma Secara Tradisional
Agen Resmi Green World Indonesia

Heni Herbal said...

If there is a desire will surely be realized if we continue to fight and spirit? Thank you for providing information so useful once
Pengobatan Alternatif Sirkulasi Darah Ke Otak Secara Tradisional
Cara Mengobati Penyakit Ginjal Secara Alami
Pengobatan Alternatif Penyakit Hati Secara Alami
Cara Mengobati Ginjal Kronis Secara Alami
Obat Alami Untuk Memicu Kecerdasan Anak

Heni Herbal said...

By praying and fighting certainly will get the best results? very nice article thanks already present.
Cara Mengobati Infeksi Saluran Kemih Secara Alami
Vig Power Capsule Price Harga
Pengobatan Alternatif Kekentalan Darah Secara Tradisional
Cara Mengobati Gagal Ginjal Secara Alami
Cara Ampuh Mengobati Diabetes Secara Alami

Heni Herbal said...

Happy Holidays hopefully fun? we will wait for other information that is very nice thank you
Pengobatan Alternatif Penyakit Hepatitis Secara Tradisional
Cara Mengobati Ginjal Bocor Secara Alami
Pengobatan Alternatif Pasca Operasi Atau Kemoterapi
Obat Alami Ginjal Bengkak Yang Ampuh
Pengonatan Alternatif Jantung Rematik Paling Mujarab

Heni Herbal said...

Happy Holidays hopefully will be a great inspiration thanks
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Cara Alami Mengobati Batu Empedu Tanpa Operasi
Pengobatan Alternatif Flu Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Batu Ginjal Yang Ampuh
Vig Power Green World Indonesia

Heni Herbal said...

Hopefully activity today launched? Thank you for the inspiration admin may be others.
Buah Penambah Stamina Pria Dewasa
Pengobatan Alternatif Penurunan Sel Darah Putih
Cara Alami Mengobati Penyakit Jantung Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Penyakit Komplikasi Secara Tradisional
Cara Alami Mengatasi Penyakit Jantung Koroner

Heni Herbal said...

With the inspiration hopefully the work will be finished soon? Website that is very nice thank you for presenting it.
Pengobatan Alternatif Sakit Pinggang Secara Tradisional
Cara Mengobati Penyakit Liver Yang Sudah Parah
Pengobatan Alternatif Penyakit Kolesterol Secara Tradisional
Cara Alami Mengobati Infeksi Paru-Paru Ampuh
Cara Ampuh Mengatasi Mata Lelah

Heni Herbal said...

Thank you for an excellent website and very useful once gan !
Pengobatan Alternatif Batuk Berdarah Yang Aman Dan Efektif
Pengobatan Alternatif TBC Secara Tradisional
Cara Alami Meningkatkan IQ Anak
Cara Alami Mengobati Tumor Otak Tanpa Operasi
Slimming Capsule Green World Indonesia

Heni Herbal said...

strive for the sake of a happy future? Thank you for the help
Pengobatan Alternatif Asam Urat Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif Wasir Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif Hipertiroid Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif Kanker Hati Secara Tradisional
Cara Mengobati Infeksi Saluran Kemih Secara Alami

Heni Herbal said...

with the full support of people nearby so can the spirit? thank you very much for helping
Pengobatan Alternatif Kanker Paru-Paru Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif Kanker Prostat Secara Tradisional
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Pengobatan Alternatif Kanker Darah Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Penyakit Stroke Paling Ampuh

Heni Herbal said...

thank you for serving this information useful?
Pengobatan Alternatif Untuk Memenuhi Nutrisi Mata
Obat Alami Pelangsing Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Migren Secara Alami
Cara Alami Mengobati Stroke Berat Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Gagal Jantung Secara Tradisional

Heni Herbal said...

Should keep the spirit of doing any thing positive? The information that is at present very meaningful thank you.
Pengobatan Alternatif Untuk Insomnia
Cara Alami Pengobatan Penyakit Hipertensi
Pengobatan Alternatif Stroke Ringan Secara Tradisional
Produk Green World Indonesia
Agen Resmi Green World Indonesia
Cara Menurunkan Berat Badan Dengan Cepat

Heni Herbal said...

This morning was so covered with dew but we have to keep the spirit in an activity typically bleak? The information is so very nice thank you.
Pengobatan Alternatif Keputihan Secara Tradisional
Cara Mengobati Infeksi Saluran Kemih Secara Alami
Pengobatan Alternatif Infeksi Usus Besar Secara Tradisional
Cara Alami Mengatasi Ejakulasi Dini
Cara Alami Menyembuhkan Jantung Bengkak

Handayani Heni said...

Should be calm and confident in the face of anything may produce the best? With this information we got useful thanks
Obat Alami Leukimia Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Diabetes Melitus Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Darah Tinggi Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Kanker Tulang Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif Jantung Berdebar

Handayani Heni said...

Thank you for presenting information that is very good and this is also beneficial.
Obat Alami Glaukoma Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Infeksi Saluran Kencing Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Infeksi Saluran Kemih Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Gagal Ginjal Secara Tradisional
Distributor Resmi Green World Indonesia

Handayani Heni said...

Websites are very nice, thank you for preparing all of this.
Pengobatan Alternatif Ginjal Bocor Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Penyakit Ginjal Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Ginjal Bengkak Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Gagal Ginjal Kronis Secara Tradisional
Cara Alami Pengobatan Jantung Bocor

Handayani Heni said...

Thank you for presenting this information is very useful, for it will we wait for other information.
Obat Alami Penyakit Jantung Paling ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Jantung Koroner Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Jantung Bengkak Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif jantung Lemah Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif Jantung Lemah Yang Alami

Handayani Heni said...

Good morning survived vigorously carry out activities? We will wait for another dish that is very useful.
Pengobatan Alternatif Jantung Berdebar Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Jantung Bocor paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Gagal Jantung Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Jantung Rematik Secara Tradisional
Obat Kuat Pria Tradisional

Handayani Heni said...

This article is very interesting? thank you for preparing all of this.
Obat Alami Stroke Ringan Paling ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Insomnia Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Keputihan Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Migren Secara Tradisional
Cara Alami Mengurangi Lemak Dalam Darah

Handayani Heni said...

Thank you for presenting this very useful information.
Obat Alami Penyakit TBC Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Kolesterol Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Penyakit Komplikasi Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Penyakit Liver Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Memacu Pertumbuhan Anak

Handayani Heni said...

Good morning this morning may provide very interesting information thanks.
Obat Alami Infeksi Paru-Paru paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Tumor Otak Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif Stroke Berat Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Penyakit Hernia Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Untuk Meningkatkan Libido Pria

Genies Alan said...

I finally found a blog that can make me happy. it is easy to understand, may remain calm. thanks you author.
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cara merawat mata agar tetap sehat
cara menyembuhkan osteoporosis

Handayani Heni said...

This afternoon so hot but we have to keep the spirit of doing any activity? We will wait for more information thanks
Obat Alami Penyakit Diabetes paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Stroke Trombotik Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Hipertensi Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif Gondok Beracun Secara Tradisional
Cara Alami Mengobati Penyakit Alzheimer

Handayani Heni said...

The information presented is now very useful thank you for presenting
Obat Alami Penyakit Bronkitis Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Usus Buntu Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Penyakit Keloid Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Kista Ginjal Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif Osteoporosis Yang Alami

Handayani Heni said...

This information is very helpful to us all thank you for letting us
Pengobatan Alternatif Penyakit Tiroid Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif Penyakit Gondongan Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif TBC Kelenjar Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif Kanker Lidah Secara Tradisional
Kumpulan Artikel Tentang Pengobatan Herbal

Genies Alan said...

These blog posts can be addictive, so do not read it. hehe ..
cool blog. hopefully remain successful.
obat untuk konstipasi
cara menyembuhkan GERD
cara menyembuhkan penyakit asma

Handayani Heni said...

Very nice article thanks for presenting Therefore, we will wait for the other article.
Obat Alami Penyakit Paru-Paru Basah Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Penyempitan Jantung Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Kanker Nasofaring Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Penyakit Gondok Paling Ampuh
Glucogen Moment

Handayani Heni said...

keep the spirit run? Thank you for presenting a very outstanding posts
Pengobatan Alternatif Susah Tidur Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Sesak Nafas Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Darah Rendah Paling Ampuh
Obat Alami Penyakit TBC Paru Paling Ampuh
Agen Glucolife Balikpapan Kalimantan Selatan

Tahsin Agha said...

I know where I'm going and I know the truth, and I don't have to be what you want me to be. I'm free to be what I want.Thankyou i really love it.......

Handayani Heni said...

Am very happy to visit this website thanks
Cara Mengobati Infeksi Saluran Kemih Secara Alami
Cara Mengobati Gagal Ginjal Secara Alami
Cara Mengobati Penyakit Ginjal Secara Alami
Pengobatan Alternatif Penyakit Hepatitis Secara Tradisional
Cara Alami Mengobati Penyakit Kardiovaskuler

Handayani Heni said...

Glad to visit the website that you have presented with a very nice thank you
Obat Alami Demam Tifoid Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Kista Testis Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Penyakit Asbestosis Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Gastritis Secara Tradisional
Pengobatan Alternatif Untuk Sakit Pinggang

Handayani Heni said...

This website is very good and also very useful thanks
Pengobatan Alternatif Pengerasan Hati Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Peradangan Hati Paling Ampuh
Pengobatan Alternatif Sakit Pinggang Secara Tradisional
Obat Alami Pneumonia Paling Ampuh
Obat Loyo Alami

Handayani Heni said...

Thank you for presenting a very nice site.
Kios Herbal
Vig Power Capsule Price Harga
Obat Tradisional Kencing Manis

Rehane putrie said...

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Rehane putrie said...

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Rehane putrie said...

I know where I'm going and I know the truth, and I don't have to be what you want me to be. I'm free to be what I want.Thankyou i really love it

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